Friday, November 30, 2012

Overall Grade

We gave Axum a B+ because the kingdom was very good until Islam spread throught the countries they traded with, but other than that the kingdom was very sucessful during its time. Devolping languages and creating beautiful set aside the fact they had lost all trade after the countries developed the religon of Islam. Axum had also created their own coin and seperated from the other countries by becoming Christians.

Government- B (David Dekens)

The Government of the Axum Empire I believe deserves a B. The Government deserves this grade because the empire lasted around 840 years, which is 432 years higher than the average duration of 472 years.The Axum empire had a Authoritarian government. This means that the key goal was to be obidient to authority. This type of government did not encourage individual freedom. At the empires peak in 350, the empire covered about 482,628 square miles.In 330, King Ezana started planning and attempting to conquer the falling Kush. In 350, the empire reached this peak as they conquered the empire of Kush. After this triumph, it was easier for the Aksumites to trade because the land had trade routes to inland Africa. That was a great expansion of territory, declaring their authority and great role in government. As one may know, Axum was the first state south of the Sahara to mint their own coins. Imprinted upon these bronze, silver, and gold coins was the saying, "May the country be satisfied". This also ensured that the people would think that Ezana, the ruler of the time, had their interests as the top priority. The people of the time probably had faith in him anyways as he just defeated the Kush Empire.

Thursday, November 29, 2012

Religion- B+ (Arianna H.)

       The Axum empire had been a polytheistic religion before King Ezna converted to Christianity between the periods of 330 and 440. They sacrificed people and anything they could to please their Gods. Soon after, Ezna came to power, and he was convinced by Frumentius, A slaved captured by his father whom had tutored him, and converted the empire to chritisanity. The conversion brought him closer with other regions until the regions around him converted to Islam. After most regions converted to Islam it made it difficult for Christians to trade with each other because the Islam would mainly only trade with other Islam.It also made it difficult for Christian regions to communicate due to lack of trade.
     King Ezna also altered the coins in his empire. He changed the symbol on the coin from a cresent moon to a cross. He changed it because he wanted to see christianity spread in other places.

       I gave the Religion in the Axum empire a B+. I gave them this because during their conversion to Christianity Islam started spreading too, which made a lot of things difficult for them, but they stuck to their religion because it's what they believed and what they wanted. They didn't give up. I do think, however, before their conversion to Christianity that they had some problems. Such as them sacrificing people and animals all the time. It was a waste to the land and what good could have come from the people, and it left everyone labeled with who was better than who. After they changed to Christianity No one was sacrificed and everyone was even. It made life easier for everyone.

Axum's Economy B- (Zach N Bultsma)

   For their economy they sold ivory, cattle, gold, sheep, wheat, camels, barley, emeralds, tortise shells, and rinoceros horns for trade in the Axum Kingdom. These were very important trades becasue they were used all the time for food, decorations, and to all other kinds of tools back then. They traded with several different areas like India, Rome, Africa (Nubia), Arabian (Yemen), Eygptian merchants, persian merchants, and other Indian states. They were a rich with gold and iron deposits, which were very good/vualable for trade. Because the Axum empire was near the ocean which allowed them to trade in varies places around the area. Adulis was a famous trade center which made most of the trades at the docks near the Red Sea. The Axum's trade was the best around 300AD and 600AD when the empire was at their full power. 
      Since the Axum took over the Kush empire they are now known as the land of gold and the capital of iron. Compared to the Ghana the Axum's emperor did not keep gold nuggets as his own but they used it for trade most of the time and was sold frequently. The merchants or the other citizens were allowed to have golden nuggets if they purchase it the merchandise. 

Axum Art and Architecture C- (Mason) art and architecture was creative there human advancement in obelisk emphasized human advancement. Axum was very advanced for their time period, because they were able to create 90ft tall obelisk. The obelisk were carved with windows and doors and is thought, like Stonehenge, to have some solar or astronomical measuring role. Axum s art and architecture is creative the Northern Renaissance style emphasizes symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of the classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture, of which many examples remain. Their kings minted gold coins and built stone monuments (60ft. tall).      

Technology- A (David Dekens)

The technology of the Axum Empire deserved an A. The Empire deserved this rating because they have created many Inventions and ways of doing things that people still use today.
  Axum was ahead of its time, being the first state south of the Sahara to mint its own coins. This Also improved society and Government. This standardization of currency made it easy for Merchants and even village people to trade. These coins were made 
from bronze, silver, and gold.
 Agriculture was quite important to Aksumites. The Axum Empire also created terracing, along with canals of water and dams. Terracing was the act of cutting out step like land features into the side of a hill or mountain. This made it easier to farm because the farmers had a level surface to farm on and it was harder to erode the soil in heavy rainfall. In addition to the terraces, canals were built to channel water from mountainous rivers into fields. This way, the fields always got a sustainable amount of water. These agricultural and technical innovations enabled the empire to thrive for 800 more years.

Monday, November 26, 2012

Society- B- (Morgan Domeier)

The Axum empire focused mainly on trade.Though a small amount of attention went to the society. The class system of this kingdom is like many other kingdoms.The highest class was of course the king. The king was usually refereed to as the King of Kings. After them came nobles and wealthy farmers then peasants. Finally  there were the slaves. It was easy to move social groups because there was not a strict line on moving classes. This may be because all the focus of  the Axum kingdom was trade with Northern Ethiopia and Eratria. Although they had trouble with classes, the Axumites were collaborative when it came to languages. The Axum were the only kingdom to develop a written language. The Axum also compromised a semetic-speaking populace. Many of the Axumites were farmers who carried water from the mountain down to the kingdom. If  you were not a farmer, you were a architect building monuments, pillars and thrones for the king.

I gave the society of Axum a B- because there wasn't much focus on it. The main focus of the kingdom was trade. Though they still were very productive when it came to language and the lack of punishment for social movement aloud many people have a chance to do what they are very good at and contribute to the society.